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Syyskuussa Paul Fanger vastaanotti aluksen päällikön tehtävät. Alus lähti Hakaristilla varustettu sotalippu nostettiin ensimmäisen kerran salkoon 7.

Kaksi päivää myöhemmin alus siirrettiin telakalle huoltoon, jonka aikana aluksen ilmatorjunta- ja torpedoaseistusta muutettiin. Miehistönkoulutus ja erilaiset harjoitukset jatkuivat vuoden ensimmäisen puoliskon.

Alus oli Heinäkuussa tykistö- ja torpedokoulutus jatkui Itämerellä, jona aikana alus vieraili useissa satamissa näyttämässä lippua.

Espanjan sisällissota alkoi Wilhelmshavenissa aluksen varastot täytettiin kovin ampumatarvikkein. Seuraavana päivänä alus lähti Admiral Scheerin kanssa kohti Espanjaa.

Hieman myöhemmin aluksia seurasivat Köln ja 2. Saksan laivaston lähettämän osaston johtajana oli vara-amiraali Carls. Osasto tuki Espanjan rannikolla Francisco Francon kansallismielisiä.

Deutschland osallistui yhteensä seitsemään operaatioon vuosien ja välillä. Aluksen kimppuun hyökkäsi Toisen maailmansodan alettua Deutschland nimettiin uudelleen Lützowiksi , sillä Adolf Hitler ei halunnut isänmaan mukaan nimetyn laivan joutuvan vaaraan merellä.

Helmikuussa Lützow luokiteltiin sisaralustensa kanssa raskaiksi risteilijöiksi. Huhtikuussa Lützow osallistui Norjan valtaukseen , jossa se seurasi Blücheria Oslonvuonoon , mutta kääntyi takaisin Blücherin upottua.

Lützowiin osui ennen vetäytymistä kolme Kaholmin rannikkopatterin mm:n kranaattia, joista yksi osui etummaisen tykkitornin keskiputkeen, toinen sairaalatiloihin ja kolmas vasempaan venenosturiin.

Lützow oli yksi Britannian pienoissukellusvenein toteuttaman Operaatio Lähteen kohteista syyskuussa Operaation tärkein kohde oli taistelulaiva Tirpitz , jota vahingoitettiin vakavasti.

Lützowiin suunnattu hyökkäys ei sen sijaan onnistunut. Sen kohteekseen saanut pienoissukellusvene X-8 oli jouduttu upottamaan ennen kohdealueelle saapumista.

Kesästä alkaen Lützow yhdessä risteilijöiden Prinz Eugenin ja Admiral Scheerin kanssa tuki maavoimien vetäytymistaistelua Itämerellä.

Saarenmaan eteläkärjessä olevaa Sõrven kaupunkia evakuoitaessa laivojen suurikaliiperiset tykit olivat merkittävä tuki ahtaalle ajetuille maavoimille ja evakuoivalle laivastolle.

Tulenjohtoa vaikeutti se, että maavoimien tulenjohtosanasto oli erilainen kuin laivaston, karttaruudusto poikkesi täysin ja viestityksessä vain morseaakkoset olivat yhteisiä.

Merkittävässä asemassa olivat laivaston vesitasolentäjät , jotka toimivat tulenjohdon tähystäjinä [8]. Neue Deutsche Härte industrial metal electro-industrial.

Download streaming. GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 28 March Retrieved 29 March Australian Recording Industry Association.

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Onnistuneet vastaanottotestit laivasto suoritti Hieman ennen palvelukseenottoa alukselle oli siirretty miestä modernisoitavana olleelta risteilijä Emdeniltä.

Siirron jälkeen aluksella oli täysi hengen miehistö, johon kuului 33 upseeria, aliupseeria ja miehistönjäsentä sekä viisitoista siviiliä. Siviilit olivat kahdeksan kokkia ja tarjoilijaa, parturi, kolme suutaria ja kolme ompelijaa.

Toukokuun puolivälissä alukselle saapui MAN-yhtiön dieselinsinööriä aluksen neitsytmatkaa varten Wilhelmshavenista Skagerrakin läpi Kieliin, missä alus esiteltiin Alus ei kuitenkaan osallistunut merisotaharjoitukseen, vaan pysyi laiturissa.

Harjoituksen päätyttyä alus jatkoi neitsytmatkaansa vieraillen Norjassa Balholmenilla ja Färsaarilla, läpäisi Tanskansalmen ennen vierailua Islannissa.

Aluksella pidettiin Skagerrakissa muistotilaisuus ensimmäisessä maailmansodassa surmansa saaneiden merisotilaiden muistoksi ennen kuin se saapui Wilhelmshaveniin 1.

Propulsiojärjestelmän testit olivat edenneet hyvin ja aluksen huippunopeudeksi vahvistettiin 25 solmua rpm:llä. Alus kykeni matkaamaan kuudesta kymmeneen tuntia rpm:llä, kolmesta viiteen tuntiin rpm:llä ja tunnin maksimikierroksin, jolloin saavutettaisiin noin 28 solmun huippunopeus.

Alus palasi 6. Alus suoritti koeammunnat Ammunnat suoritettiin ensin harjoituskranaatein ja sitten sisäpiipuilla. Lopuksi suoritettiin pimeällä ammunnat kovin ampumatarvikkein.

Alus sai Vuoden ensimmäiset kuukaudet Deutschland oli miehistöineen koulutettavana erilaisissa harjoituksissa.

Alus lähti Kielistä huhtikuussa Norjan rannikolle Sogneen ja Hardangeriin. Valtakunnan kansleri nousi alukselle yhdessä korkeiden puoluevirkailijoiden ja asevoimien esikunnan henkilöstön kanssa.

Hitlerin ollessa aluksella matkustajana joka ei halunnut erikoiskohtelua, vaan hän vaelsi aluksella yksin keskustellen miehistön kanssa.

Toukokuussa osallistuttuaan merisotaharjoitukseen Warnemünden ja Sassnitzin edustalla alus lähti Wilhelmshavenista 9.

Matkalla alus vieraili Funchalissa ja palasi Saksaan Elokuussa alus vieraili Göteborgissa syksyn merisotaharjoituksen aikana ja 1.

Vierailtuaan Leithissä Skotlannissa alus siirrettiin huollettavaksi telakalle Wilhelmshavenissa, missä työt alkoivat Alus palasi Taistelulaivaosaston komentaja nosti Matkan tarkoituksena oli propulsiojärjestelmän testaus ja merikelpoisuuden testaaminen.

Alus palasi matkalta Saksaan Retrieved 8 April Eesti Ekspress. Retrieved 31 May Retrieved 9 April Les classement single. Single track Top 40 lista.

Retrieved 12 April Irish Singles Chart. Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 3 December Retrieved 15 April Single Top Recorded Music NZ.

Official Charts Company. Singles Top Swiss Singles Chart. GfK Entertainment in German. Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances to protect against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.

After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed, [54] a general armistice ended the fighting.

In the German Revolution November , Emperor Wilhelm II and the ruling princes abdicated their positions and Germany was declared a federal republic.

Germany's new leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in , accepting defeat by the Allies. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating, which was seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.

Street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops, and a period of hyperinflation followed.

A debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in ushered in the Golden Twenties , an era of artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.

The worldwide Great Depression hit Germany in In , the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.

The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. By , Germany and her allies controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa , but following the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad , the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in , German forces suffered repeated military defeats.

In , the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe ; the Western allies landed in France and entered Germany despite a final German counteroffensive.

In what later became known as the Holocaust , the German government persecuted minorities, including interning them in concentration and death camps across Europe.

After Nazi Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four occupation zones. They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany.

West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a " social market economy ". Starting in West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan.

The country enjoyed prolonged economic growth Wirtschaftswunder beginning in the early s. Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members Politbüro of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany , supported by the Stasi , an immense secret service.

This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. In an effort to help retain East Germany as a state, the East German authorities eased border restrictions, but this actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process culminating in the Two Plus Four Treaty under which Germany regained full sovereignty.

This permitted German reunification on 3 October , with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.

United Germany was considered the enlarged continuation of West Germany so it retained its memberships in international organisations.

Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union , signing the Maastricht Treaty in and the Lisbon Treaty in , [] and co-founding the Eurozone.

In the elections , Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor. Germany is in Western and Central Europe, bordering Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, and Switzerland to the south-southwest.

France , Luxembourg and Belgium are situated to the west, with the Netherlands to the northwest. Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea.

It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 62nd largest in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps highest point: the Zugspitze at 2, metres or 9, feet in the south to the shores of the North Sea Nordsee in the northwest and the Baltic Sea Ostsee in the northeast.

The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany lowest point: Wilstermarsch at 3.

Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash , timber, lignite , uranium , copper, natural gas, salt, and nickel.

Most of Germany has a temperate climate, ranging from oceanic in the north to continental in the east and southeast.

Winters range from cold in the southern Alps to mild and are generally overcast with limited precipitation, while summers can vary from hot and dry to cool and rainy.

The northern regions have prevailing westerly winds that bring in moist air from the North Sea, moderating the temperature and increasing precipitation.

Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures. From February —, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.

The territory of Germany can be divided into two ecoregions : European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.

Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Wild animals include roe deer , wild boar , mouflon a subspecies of wild sheep , fox , badger , hare , and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.

Germany is a federal , parliamentary , representative democratic republic. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag Federal Diet and Bundesrat Federal Council , which together form the legislative body.

The Bundestag is elected through direct elections : half by majority vote and half by proportional representation. The members of the Bundesrat represent and are appointed by the governments of the sixteen federated states.

Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat ; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law , are valid in perpetuity.

The president , currently Frank-Walter Steinmeier , is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung federal convention , an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.

So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. Since , the left-wing populist party The Left has been a staple in the German Bundestag , though they have never been part of the federal government.

In the German federal election , the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.

Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer. As of [update] Germany is divided into districts Kreise at a municipal level; these consist of rural districts and urban districts.

Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law. Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively.

The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Germany has a low murder rate with 1. Germany has a network of diplomatic missions abroad [] and maintains relations with more than countries.

It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.

The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.

The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 8th highest in the world.

In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. In state of defence , the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.

But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.

As of [update] , the German military has about 3, troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1, supporting operations against Daesh , in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and in Kosovo.

Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force , a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation.

Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Being home to the modern car , the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world, [] and is the fourth largest by production.

Of the world's largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in , the Fortune Global , 29 are headquartered in Germany.

Research and development efforts form an integral part of the German economy. With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.

In [update] , Germany was the world's seventh-largest consumer of energy. Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of [update] , with Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports 4.

With a population of Its population density stands at inhabitants per square kilometre per square mile.

The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants.

Germany has the third oldest population in the world, with the average age of Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries: [] There is a Danish minority in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein ; [] the Sorbs , a Slavic population , are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg.

After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas.

Of the country's residents, Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions.

The country's largest city is Berlin , while its largest urban area is the Ruhr. The German Census showed Christianity as the largest religion in Germany, with According to data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed Other religions comprise less than one percent of Germany's population.

Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas.

German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.

Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.

Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school.

Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. According to an OECD report in , Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study.

Germany's system of hospitals, called Krankenhäuser , dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the s.

The population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

Germany ranked 20th in the world in in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women , and it had a very low infant mortality rate 4 per 1, live births.

A study showed that 52 percent of the adult German population was overweight or obese. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" , [] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.

Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.

German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.

Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Wolfgang Rihm are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.

As of , Germany was the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.

Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter. German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose in response to expressionism during the Weimar Republic.

Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

Weser Renaissance. Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles.

Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement : it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius New Objectivity , and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius.

German designers became early leaders of modern product design. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.

German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz 's contributions to rationalism ; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant ; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ; Arthur Schopenhauer 's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ; Friedrich Nietzsche 's development of perspectivism ; Gottlob Frege 's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy ; Martin Heidegger 's works on Being; Oswald Spengler 's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School has been particularly influential.

German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam was established in , thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world.

Director Fritz Lang 's Metropolis is referred to as the first major science-fiction film. After , many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm rubble film.

Various Germans won an Oscar for their performances in other films. The Berlin International Film Festival , known as "Berlinale", awarding the " Golden Bear " and held annually since , is one of the world's leading film festivals.

German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e.

International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about main types of bread and 1, types of pastries and rolls Brötchen.

Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.

The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , giving the country a cumulative total of stars. Football is the most popular sport in Germany.

Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport.

Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update]. The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships.

Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

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For the country from to , see West Germany. Country in Central Europe. Show globe. Show map of Europe.

Further information: Names of Germany , Germani , and Germania. Main article: History of Germany. Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.

Main article: History of Germany — Main articles: German reunification and History of Germany since Main article: Geography of Germany. Main articles: States of Germany and Federalism in Germany.

Lower Saxony. Mecklenburg- Vorpommern. Saxony- Anhalt. Baden- Württemberg. Main article: Foreign relations of Germany.

Main article: Bundeswehr. Main articles: Economy of Germany and Science and technology in Germany. Main article: Tourism in Germany.

Main articles: Demographics of Germany and Germans. Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Main article: Religion in Germany.

Main articles: German language and Languages of Germany. Main article: Education in Germany. Main article: Healthcare in Germany.

Main article: Culture of Germany. Main article: Music of Germany. Main articles: German art , Architecture of Germany , and German fashion.

Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest Main articles: German literature and German philosophy. Main articles: Media of Germany and Cinema of Germany.

Main article: German cuisine. Main article: Sport in Germany. Germany portal. Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem. Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 8 March Archived from the original on 30 April Library of Congress.

Archived from the original on 25 May CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 29 March Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 15 July International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 9 March Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 14 October United Nations Development Programme. Archived PDF from the original on 22 March Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch in German 6th ed.

Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. Archived from the original on 11 September Lloyd, Albert L. Archived from the original on 16 September P 27 August Bibcode : PNAS..

Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on 30 March

Germany is a federalparliamentaryrepresentative democratic republic. Security Council: Maas gives positive assessment. Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances to protect against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France. In the electionsAngela Merkel became the first Beste Spielothek in Lans finden chancellor. Allen Lane. United Nations Tipwin Download Programme. This article is about the country. Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder. Kansirakenteet jäivät kuitenkin pinnan yläpuolelle ja se jatkoi maavoimien tukemista tykeillään, Grand Hotel Downtown sen oma miehistö upotti sen 4.